Obese vs smoking

As a result, smoking increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and diabetes, and these factors increase risk of cardiovascular disease.In the context of the worldwide obesity epidemic and a high prevalence of smoking, the greater risk of (central) obesity and insulin resistance among smokers is a matter of major concern.In contrast, heavy smokers tend to have greater body weight than do light smokers or nonsmokers, which likely reflects a clustering of risky behaviors (eg, low degree of physical activity, poor diet, and smoking) that is conducive to weight gain.Smoking's effect on body weight could lead to weight loss by increasing the metabolic rate, decreasing metabolic efficiency, or decreasing caloric absorption (reduction in appetite), all of which are associated with tobacco use.Smoking and obesity are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide (1, 2).In the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (ie, NHANES II) study (1976–1980), smokers weighed less than nonsmokers, and body leanness increased with the duration (but not with the intensity) of smoking (18).Therefore, our aims were to critically review how smoking affects body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance and to propose a comprehensive view of that issue.

On the other hand, studies indicate that heavy smokers (ie, those smoking a greater number of cigarettes/d) have greater body weight than do light smokers (8–10) and that there is a clustering of smoking, obesity, and lower socioeconomic status, at least in developed countries (11).Our aim was to critically evaluate the relations among smoking, body weight, body fat distribution, and insulin resistance as reported in the literature.), is lower in cigarette smokers than in nonsmokers (5, 14–16).The co-occurrence of overweight and smoking has substantial consequences for health.In a context of the worldwide obesity epidemic and a high prevalence of smoking (which is increasing in many parts of the world), the relation among smoking, obesity, and associated conditions has major public health relevance.